If Deaf people accuse hearing people of Audism, IT IS NOT A CRIME.
Today, December 3, 2019: International Day of Disabled Persons.
When my state of being Deaf had been taught all my life, being told, and being controlled by the medical model of disability, I refuse to live in the negativity bias. Being Deaf is no longer viewed as a disability. What is negativity bias?
It was known as negativity effect (1), also known as the negativity effect, is the notion that, even when of equal intensity, things of a more negative nature (e.g. unpleasant thoughts, emotions, or social interactions; harmful/traumatic events) have a greater effect on one’s psychological state and processes than neutral or positive things. (2,3,4)
Do you tend to dwell on bad memories and experiences? It may be due to the negativity bias, because being colonized and taught that Deaf people are disabled.
The Deaf community is powerful in the human psyche. Indeed, at this level of humanity, would the Deaf community understand the painful history of what the term “disability” define Deaf people? Have the Medical Model of Disability had caused enough destruction in the Deaf community?
‘Do Deaf People Have a Disability?‘ published by Harlan Lane:
“A disability is a limitation of function because of an impairment. Deaf people are limited in some functions because of an impairment of hearing. Therefore, Deaf people have a disability.” (5)
We already know that Deaf people who embody rather healthy traits of higher learning, the pursuit of happiness, and respect, but sadly, though, they are often being colonized by the disability model. Consider the plight of the oppressed of today. Lane writes in, Constructions of Deafness:
“As a social problem, deafness can be variously construed. Each of the primary constructions of deafness today – disability and linguistic minority – has its archetypes but most deaf children match neither of them.” (6)
Why must Deaf people come under a disability label, despite the vast differences, would the Deaf community stop being labeled by the disability model, would they do so with a commitment to developing a healthy task to overcome indifference, a show of human compassion, that plagues the Deaf community?
Nyle DiMarco writes:
“My Deaf identity is not an obstacle but an advantage — an asset.”
But….the confusion……the disability model has been taking advantage of the Deaf community as an asset and live in negativity effect.
And, I learned that Nyle DiMarco and his twin brother are on a panel about disability inclusion sponsored by the World Bank at this hour. Will Nyle tell the world that being Deaf is not part of disability? I doubt so.
Will Nyle tell the world about The Ugly Laws: Disability in Public? I doubt so. Because Nyle thinks disability is a positivity effect. The opposite of the negativity effect. Does that mean Nyle DiMarco is also being colonized, too?
According to Paddy Ladd, Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood:
“The culturolinguistic model thus leads to the situating of Deaf community experiences within the rubric of colonialism. Although most people conceive colonialism as formed around economic power visited upon cultures less able to defend themselves, there is undeniably a case to be made for the concept of linguistic colonialism, and it is this which provides a bridge across which discourses between signing and other colonised communities can begin.” (7)
We must always remind ourselves as well as all others how our Declaration of Independence makes our country different from any other nation around the world. The Declaration proclaims that we have inalienable rights to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
Finally, Harlan Lane writes in the same book above:
Copyright © 2019 Jason Tozier
This text may be freely copied in its entirely only, including this copyright message.
(1) Kanouse, D. E., & Hanson, L. (1972). Negativity in evaluations. In E. E. Jones, D. E. Kanouse, S. Valins, H. H. Kelley, R. E. Nisbett, & B. Weiner (Eds.), Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
(3) Lewicka, Maria; Czapinski, Janusz; Peeters, Guido (1992). “Positive-negative asymmetry or “When the heart needs a reason””. European Journal of Social Psychology. 22 (5): 425–434
(4) Rozin, Paul; Royzman, Edward B. (2001). “Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion”. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 5 (4): 296–320.
(5) Lane, Harlan L. “Do Deaf People Have a Disability?” Sign Language Studies, vol. 2 no. 4, 2002, p. 356-379. Project MUSE
(6) Lane, Harlan L. (1995) Constructions of Deafness, Disability & Society, 10:2, 171-190
(7) Ladd, Paddy (2003) Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood, 17.
This is a video response for National Deaf Therapy (NDT)—
Hate is a form of oppression that a countless number of Deaf people encounter. Normally, we think of “hate” is referred to, even invisible number of Deaf people are being swept under the rug.
However, National Deaf Therapy claimed that ‘Hate is not mental health issue.”
The forms of hate can be found in: bullying, Audism, discrimination, taunting, making offensive comments, judging, power of abuse, public shaming and forth where Deaf people experience every day. Can we admit the truth that there are lots of Deaf people has experienced some type of bullying? Compassion? The chain reaction of shaming, could bullying lead to hate? Will National Deaf Therapy resist this?
Is there some kind of close connection between the right to stand up against hate and separation from power-struggle in the spirit of Deaf people?
Behind it all, of course, was most neglected problem Deaf people face that was thought to be under attack and why it would allow this to happen.
The American Psychological Association (APA) and The Psychology of Hate Crimes at APA Public Interest Government Relations Office in 2017 has stated:
“Hate crimes are a public mental health issue.” Will National Deaf Therapy agree with APA?
In 2016, Huff Post published a powerful article: Hate Is a Mental Health Issue by Dr. Barbara Van Dahlen writes:
“We need to recognize this type of hatred for what it is, a sign of severe emotional disturbance. And we need to take more responsibility for those around us who seem to be suffering—before their pain becomes unbearable and is turned inward against themselves or outward……. This type of overwhelming, all-consuming hatred cannot exist within an emotionally healthy human being.”
“Further tragedies can be prevented if we pay attention to the signs of emotional suffering—in ourselves and those we love—and, if we take responsibility for reaching out to those in need, to those who are falling through cracks.” In 2018, James M. Shultz, Tanya L. Zakrison, Sandro Galea in Hate and the Health of Populations,
“Against this backdrop, there should be little question at this point that hate is a powerful motivator of harm against others. The direct consequences of hate—including violence, discrimination, and marginalization of out-groups—are associated with poor health. Apart from the direct physical harm they inflict, hate-induced actions are associated with substantial mental illness effects.”—
“Recognizing that hate is a determinant of health puts the issue squarely within the remit of the population health community, pushing us to consider what we can do to address hate.”—Shultz, Zakrison, Galea.
Hate is indeed, a mental health issue. It is normal for Deaf individuals like yourself to have this kind of reaction, and it is important to understand that hate is not a joke. Yet, National Deaf Therapy questions the cause and effect to describe Deaf people not to experience hate, as a mental health issue is questionable.
In 2007: My essay was written for hate crimes and bias class,
Negative Perceptions of Deaf Individuals in Relation to Knowledge of American Sign Language:
“Yet this most stigmatized group is not often viewed through the lens of compassion and understanding, only modern forms of old ignorance. The Deaf community has gone through considerable evolution, but hate crime remains invisible in face of society.” (Tozier, 2007)
“As I have been told again and again, the experience of Deaf victims of hate crime has been traumatic. Life has been hard for them. Deaf people have toiled and fought on behalf of the society that has violated their human rights, dealing with manipulation, ignorance, denial of basic civil and language rights, among many other injustices. Deaf people struggled with the land and the lawless nature of American society. Hate crimes against them have been largely under-reported, under-investigated, and under-prosecuted.” (Tozier, 2007)
Either pin down truth or denial. In those experiences, hate incidents that truly happened, like the making final decision of hate, as non-mental health issue is questionable. As the Deaf community become objective in their own experience, they separate it from themselves.
Yes, hate should be a mental health issue in the Deaf community. There is no place for hate in the Deaf community. Should hate as emotionally, psychologically, and sociologically denial for the Deaf community? Why or Why not?
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Copyright © 2019 Jason Tozier
This text may be freely copied in its entirely only, including copyright message.
Do a climate of justice impact ASL/Deaf community including Deaf Indigenous and Deaf People of Color community?
Dear ambassadors of Gallaudet community,
I would like to thank the (Gallaudet) University Communications Team, which is a public relations-appointed team to represent Gallaudet University. The communication is to represent the ambassadors of Gallaudet community with truth. It is extremely important to be aware about the truth.
“The difference between truth and fact is that fact is something that cannot be combated with reasoning, for it is logic itself. But truth is something which depends on a person’s perspective and experience”
It is important to seek healthy resolutions for the Deaf. There are plenty of Deaf alumni and alumnus experience being oppressed at Gallaudet. This brings to the question: How do we converse Gallaudet University into a new university so that we can embrace higher learning that best reflects our own intellectual freedom?
The University Communications Team writes:
“Gallaudet University is primarily for deaf and hard of hearing students, and has been since 1864. It has always welcomed hearing students who are bilingual and committed to learning in a signing environment. From time to time, there are challenges to this very notion, on social media and elsewhere. We recognize that these pieces represent a broader struggle that our community has faced for years in regards to discrimination, exclusion, or audism. As a community of Deaf people, it is important that we recognize this while a the same time separating facts from fiction.”
The thoughts to the oppression: discrimination, exclusion, or Audism, is much more serious ideological more than its own generosity. Gallaudet Deaf students had been the subject of the most serious oppressed group, and its ambition to weaken ASL and Deaf culture.
In Open Your Eyes: Deaf Studies Talking by H-Dirksen L. Bauman:
“The dynamics of audism principally take the form of colonial relations. Ladd and Lane have both explored parallels between colonization and the Deaf experience, through the eradication of indigenous language, education, values and history…..The history of deaf people comes to light, we see that it is bound up in the historical practices of normalization…”
In 2000, I believe that the survey asking Deaf students: Have they seen the word, “Audism” before? Very few Deaf students recognized the term, two years later in 2002, more Deaf students were aware about Audism.
That is what it is the core of the problem on the Gallaudet campus, not delivering enough awareness about Audism even today, the signing environment on the campus is not exactly ASL-centered enough, and the ideological had created bigger problems.
For example, the approval of cochlear implant center in 2006. Why cannot Gallaudet admit that the fact that it is creating the consequences of this misinformation are disastrous, not only for Deaf people, but for the entire world, especially social media?
Always with old habit and inertia, fear has much to do with keeping reality the same as it always was: status quo. The beloved ship we call Gallaudet, opening the way to unknown is hard for many of us to accept, yet it is only avenue into ASL and Deaf culture, our own world. We are aware that in a world of change that we are currently witnessing at Gallaudet University, there must be gain and loss. Our society judges gain to be good and loss to be bad.
Undergraduate Enrollment of Deaf Studies in the United States: Carrie Lou Garberoglio, Jeffrey Levi Palmer, and Stephanie Cawthon did a research sponsored by National Deaf Center on Postsecondary Outcomes:
“Postsecondary enrollment rates for deaf people have increased since the 1980s, in large part due to legislative action and increased accessibility of educational environments (Newman et al; 2011) Despite increased access to postsecondary education, fewer deaf people complete college degrees than their hearing peers (Gaberoglio, Palmer, Cawthon, & Sales, 2019a) National data show that only 5% of deaf people were currently enrolled in postsecondary institutions of any type, compared to 11% of hearing people (Garberoglio et al; 2019a)
-Among all currently enrolled college students, 1.3% are deaf (Garberoglio, Palmer, and Cawthon)
-Deaf college students are older than their hearing counterparts, with an average of 31. (Garberoglio, Palmer, and Cawthon)
Why small number? The number of hearing student applications are increasingly more and faster, more power to meet the requirements as Deaf students which is much harder for them to meet the requirements, and hearing fare better in academics, writing, and such than the Deaf students in today’s Deaf Education. Not only that, but today’s Deaf Education around the country is Educational Bankruptcy.
The loss of Gallaudet Preparatory was the biggest hurt. For the pilot program in 2000 was the turning mistake. Before prior to 2000, Gallaudet University was home for Deaf students, before what happened, there were many minor losses along the way, and if we take a moment to think about these losses, we could easily see the pattern of gain and loss that ran throughout the university which was full of adversity, small or large. The gain goes to HUGS and the loss goes to the Deaf.
“PEPNet (Postsecondary Education Programs Network): Educational testing, test developers, language and communication researchers, academicians, K-12 educators and administrators; health professionals; and clinicians. Test Equity Summit—Test Equity for Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.”
I understand that there were some group of faculty from Gallaudet gave some presentations.
The admittance of hearing students, the communication speculations have been misused to defend educational bankruptcy at Gallaudet, which shall admit that there is a linguistic and cultural colonialism; Think about it, prior to 2000, the power dynamics of Audism had been hidden in the Administration and Operations Manual. The perception of Audism in the signing environment, we shall examine how Audism socialization, uncertainty, and discrimination experiences influence the trust. Is this accurate or inaccurate?
Institutional Audism. Educational Audism. Systematic Audism.
As much as the liberty that CODAs (Children of Deaf Adults) had been highly motivated, to support Deaf community is no question at all, as Edward Miner Gallaudet was all these years, Gallaudet University is just more than a university; it is unique in that its products are scholars of the Deaf. At the same time, there are some CODAs who are also much struggling as Deaf students struggling because they also see the product of language oppression from hearing students who were not enough exposed to Deaf studies.
Gallaudet University is a well-known reference to the attitude of honest acceptance of Deaf people where the celebration of Deaf people for their achievements. That is the most valued community norm to embrace ASL and Deaf culture first.
The “facts” from the last two academic years: what is it that stands between the fact and truth such a state of confusion would loose in the mind and body of a person who believed it? Would you believe that Gallaudet University is renowned university for the Deaf? The content showing numbers is the quest of its public relations–is not important thing, is it not?
Even though there is no question the shortage of brilliant minds in Deaf community, oppression is still practiced at Gallaudet University.
Public relations, the University Communications Team, and campus of Gallaudet, and most importantly, the ambassadors of Gallaudet community, is it often argued that beliefs are somehow distinct from other claims to knowledge social justice of the Deaf? An analogy could influence the case of human memory, while Deaf people are dealing with the systematic Audis; decades of oppression have shown that it comes in many forms today at Gallaudet University.
The University Communications Team on the behalf of Gallaudet University, Audism is the biggest core problem; we were lied to, and even, being exploited. Today’s Deaf Education had failed Deaf students, and to keep Deaf intellectual life–who are worth fighting for, and living for. For example, democracy had been amplified the pursuit of happiness.
The idea of creating a pilot program for HUGs is the collection of message, problematic, and the blueprint for the privatization of Gallaudet University is the main focus of core problem. Nothing to do with hearing people, it is about systematic Audism being granted permanent on a private property, to decide what services to offer, what technical standards to create, or whether instead to sell Deaf souls. It is not a fiction. It is a fact.
“The forces of normalization seem to be the gaining ground, particularly in cases like Australia, where one researcher predicts the death of Australian Sign Language (Auslan) within the next few generations due to high rates of mainstreaming, cochlear implantation, and genetic testing and counseling that discourages parents from carrying deaf babies to birth”–Open Your Eyes: Deaf Studies Talking
Gallaudet University today: high rates of mainstreaming, cochlear implantation, genetic testing, counseling, and increase number of hearing privileges. We must embrace ASL and Deaf Studies more than ever. Remember the documentary, The End?
The instructions for the life of Deaf on Earth, shall not deal with linguistic and cultural colonialism. The Gallaudet’s mission, vision, core values, and strategic goals supporting the education and empowerment of Deaf, is falling into the wrong path. The core of the systematic oppression is so infinitely.
The facts had been shared accordingly. I refuse to be called a fiction or a fool.
-Jason “JT” Tozier
P.S. As we understand that the Gallaudet P.R. made a video statement that BAI students were not counted under the eight percent cap–only shown in 2018 figures and did not show any figures on year 2020 either. How come we could not able to see the projected 2020 figures in both fields: online students and BAI students, but they only show the HUGs figures projected for 2020 already and why is that?
The adage that there is no perfect machine holds true from a Jack-in-the-Box to the criminal justice system. What can Deaf inmates and returnees broken by this system hope to achieve during June, which is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) awareness month?
Especially when this awareness reach extends deeply into the Deaf community to places needing empowerment, healing, and positive steps? What resolution can empower Deaf returnees to build learning, healthy and safe spaces?
Imagine the stories of Deaf inmates and Deaf returnees, their hearts shattering under the fiber of social rejection. Even while they are making a positive change to share their experiences to overcome the depression, they experience bullying, humiliation, and surmounting hardships; the toughest thing.
I believe that there are high and unreported PTSD cases by Deaf inmates and Deaf returnees that the social media needs to acknowledge. The sweeping impact of ignoring Deaf simply for who they are, and the lack of awareness, is not felt enough in the criminal justice system. Just like the marginalization of Deaf returnees in Deaf community, why are they being singled out?
While the United States has put more people in prison than any other country, it does not have resources to help Deaf returnees rebuild their lives once they are released. While there is a growing need, there is also a forgotten movement to end mass incarceration to reduce recidivism. Deaf returnees need inspiration and guidance.
Deaf returnees who are in search of rebuilding lives are at once faced with overcoming steep economic hardship, systematic privileges, unemployment, and lastly, PTSD. Changing the pattern across the country would help Deaf returnees successfully transition from inmate to returnee life on the outside.
The Second Chance Act of 2007, which is having a difficult time getting funding, would most likely hurt Deaf returnees in the long run. Why? So, Deaf returnees would be able to get help and learn how to develop healthy thinking patterns.
One bit of critical information here. Not empowering Deaf returnees enough can become frightfully expensive and mentally taxing. Empowering Deaf returnees would require intimate examination of the territory of their lives and not just a perception of its surface, incorporating new knowledge into other knowledge;
Empowering is a good investment, and the supporters’ efforts pay off. Empowering would gain intellectual and emotional agility and strength so needed in society.
Copyright © 2019 Jason Tozier
This text may be freely copied in its entirely only, including this copyright message.