What is a ​Monopoly?

We need to understand what a monopoly is all about. Is Communication Service for the Deaf (CSD) being a powerhouse by monopolizing intelligent properties in the Deaf community even the Gallaudet community, too.

WRITTEN ENGLISH TRANSCRIPT:

Interesting word. What is monopoly? For example, POWER. Money. Again, we need to examine what is POWER. Common sense. Power hurts. Destroy. What will it benefit? You know, when you thirst for POWER. A good example of monopoly.

Bilderberg–it was created in 1954, where most powerful people (leaders, politicians, etc) would gather together and talk about finances around the world. Today, some of the most richest people on the Earth, that influences and control money around the world. Most of them are White Privileges. Rules, policies, taking over intelligent property what it would call Turfism. That is a good example of monopoly.

Understand that those most powerful people do hurt people on the Earth. A lot of suffering. I learned about this in Globalization. That is where money comes from. Good example: Communication Service for the Deaf (CSD) monopolizing Gallaudet University. It is only beginning. It is developing more connections. I feel that it is important to share this with you.

CSD in 1990s, who has begun to take over National Association of the Deaf (NAD), and how does it happen? CEO for CSD was Ben Soukup who also was NAD president. Once he was done with NAD, there are several former NAD presidents who worked for CSD as well as working for CSD while as NAD presidents. That is where CSD became too greedy and powerful. No wonder why NAD policies is not strong enough. Because CSD has a lot of money and power-playing.

Interesting. Social Fund Venture (SFV) gets money from United States government to help create Deaf businesses. Favoritism hurts that divides Deaf community. Taking over or shutting down Deaf businesses. That is a good example of monopoly. Same idea as Bilderberg. Except that Bilderberg has A LOT OF MONEY, but CSD is growing more money than ever.

Money grows because of Crane family. Jameson Crane. A hearing on Board of Trustees for Gallaudet University. Jameson have a Deaf son whose wife is founder of National Deaf Therapy (NDT) and that’s where money comes in. Crane family is rich—owns too many businesses all over, where they gave $13.5 million dollars to Ohio State University.

Jameson Crane Sports Medical Institute. Ohio State is well-known for football, high profile. Jameson Crane, Jr’s son, Jameson Crane III is Executive Director for United States Deaf Sports Federation (USDAF). Whose president for USADF? Lacy who is also from Communication Service for the Deaf (CSD)

Jameson Crane, Jr was a former board member for CSD, now Board of Trustees for Gallaudet, five from Gallaudet Board of Trustees has deep connection with CSD gets bonus. That is a good example of monopolizing Deaf businesses or organizations. People do not know about that. Back to Lacy.

Paul Kelly, a hearing person who was Vice President of Finance at Gallaudet University, is now retired. He was in charge of Gallaudet University’s money. Now the policies, rules, etc is weak, have not updated. Lacy is now in charge of Kelly’s job. Meaning if people files complaint, Lacy is responsible for complaints. But the problem is that he’s from CSD. Crane family is in control.

Yes, Gallaudet’s enrollment is tricky, and is not being honest with alumni and alumnus of GU, remember I talked about hearing taking over Gallaudet University few months ago, facts were presented, yet, GU twisted the facts. They were not honest with you. Even though if the enrollment is down, Deaf students withdraw, hearing students withdraw, but the enrollment will be always up because of hearing students, no matter what.

Number one person: President Bobbi Cordano. Who is number two? Lacy. COO from CSD. Why? Control money. Have more information to it. Interesting. Lacy’s wife is a mental health therapist for an agency. I understand that it claims that they illegally provided web-based services to Medicare Deaf clients. Medicare does not allow that.

In the long run, CSD is monopolizing Deaf businesses. Bobbi is only interested in money investment, profiting over Deaf people. Thanks to Crane. Jameson Crane III is in private business with Christopher Soukup (CEO for CSD)’s brother, Jonathan. Crane family owns a lot of business running on power. It does not matter if small Deaf-run business, they would monopolize them. Same idea as Wal-Mart.

National Deaf Therapy gets money from CSD because of Social Fund Venture (SFV). The biggest concern is that CSD, 100% ownership, accessing to information, for example, Deaf mental health patients. Why? CSD owns 100%, and we all should be concern about that. Yes, I know, HIPAA, patient confidentiality, all that. But, CSD is in total control of money.

Don’t you see patterns? There is a lot more to it. A lot more.

Links:

Our Providers

https://www.bilderbergmeetings.org/index.html

https://news.osu.edu/crane-family-donates-135-million-to-ohio-state/

 

 

 

Gallaudet U: Denison House

Alumni and Alumnus get this letter from Denison House at Gallaudet University asking for their donation to show Gallaudet pride. Supposedly if James Denison is alive and sees this, how would he respond to toxicity on the Gallaudet campus?

 

Nyle DiMarco: Eugenics?

“Fear kills more dreams than failure ever will.” 

Fear has much to do with keeping reality the same as it always was–status quo–opening the way to the unknown is hard enough for many of us to accept. Are we not witnessing enough about the biggest social problem in the Deaf community? 

For example, eugenics. Why eugenics? It involves recruitment, transporting Deaf people into a trap of exploitation through the bullying, deception, genocide, and hate to practice against their will. 

Must the gain and loss in this social problem of the Deaf where the society continues to judge gain to be good and loss to be bad, but our nature–our language and culture. Without silence, there is no room for Deaf human beings. Without silence, there cannot be a real appreciation of Deaf people. 

However, in 1988: 

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Eugenics at Gallaudet University had been fear of the unknown. Genetic engineering, collecting DNA from Deaf people on the sacred ground of the Deaf, profiting them, setting up a cochlear implant center, and bastardizing ASL. 

First of all, it’s the system that is in total control. It starts with us, the Deaf people to fight against the systematic barriers. I am not against cochlear implant users, but I am against cochlear implants itself for many reasons. The cochlear implant is part of Eugenics. 

Please see the picture:

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“A geneticist at Harvard Medical School is working on a dating app that matches users based on their DNA. The goal: to eliminate all genetic diseases.” 

Obviously, it is EUGENICS. No compassion. I would like to show you the two pictures written. 

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Nyle DiMarco:

We are being casual about eugenics

We are being casual about eugenics

We are being casual about eugenics

We are being casual about eugenics

We are being casual about eugenics

We are being casual about eugenics

We are being casual about eugenics

Nyle DiMarco:

White hearing people

Nyle DiMarco as an outstanding ambassador for Gallaudet University and for the Deaf community at large according to the website link below. 

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Notice how many times Nyle said about ‘we are being casual about eugenics’? Seven times. Exactly. Why?

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Paddy Ladd’s book, Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood, in chapter 6: he writes: 

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“It has become clear, too, that the rapid growth of this contact, combined with the quality rapid growth in unexamined use of the Deaf culture concept, has created a situation in which Deaf cultural research is needed as a matter of maximum urgency. 

This urgency is increased by the resurgence of Oralism through the cochlear implant ideology, and the advent of genetics which is viewed by some of the ‘Final Solution’. The emergence of the latter threatens to compel Deaf communities to justify their continued existence and it can only be through a clear understanding of the benefits of Deaf culture to the wider society that such a justification can be framed.”

Cochlear implant ideology and genetics: Eugenics is white hearing supremacy’s biggest profitability ratios. Deaf people are being made to be casual about eugenics. Just like Nyle said: “White hearing people”.

Since Nyle called out Harvard Medical University for the practice of Eugenics. Why cannot Nyle call out Gallaudet University for the practice of Eugenics? Oh, wait, since Nyle is an outstanding ambassador for Gallaudet University, does that mean he has to be casual and silent about it? 

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In 2003: Gallaudet University hosted a conference: Genetics, Disability, and Deafness Conference at Gallaudet University, and it actually happened. It was about breakthroughs in genetic engineering. 

Three years later in 2006, after the conference, the innovation of the cochlear implant center set up on the world’s sacred ground of the Deaf. What kind of investors has poured hundreds of millions of dollars into the innovation into genetic engineering and cochlear implants? What is the difference between genetic engineering and eugenics? 

“Controlled breeding”– That is exactly the EUGENICS. 

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I would like to share this five minutes YouTube video link below: “Hitler is Not Dead”

Isn’t Harvard Medical School and Gallaudet University doing the same thing by its highest goal to eliminate all genetic diseases, never mind the Deaf? 

Nyle DiMarco, an outstanding ambassador for Gallaudet University and for the Deaf community at large, would you have the balls to call out Gallaudet University for the practice of EUGENICS, too? Or, you are being casual? You said yourself in your own words:

“We are being casual about eugenics”

-JT 

Copyright © 2019 Jason Tozier

This text may be freely copied in its entirely only, including this copyright message.

 Links:

https://www.gallaudet.edu/about/history-and-traditions/deaf-president-now/profiles-and-viewpoints/notable-quotes

https://www.gallaudet.edu/news/cordano-dimarco-dwts

 

 

MENTAL HEALTH: Power Hunger or Power Struggle?

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Of all U.S. minority groups, the Deaf community is perhaps the most invisible. The mental health sends the message of Deaf empowerment to the public. The principle of Deaf-centric or Deaf-centered mental health is always demonstrating a passion. Or, is it a recipe for power-struggle for passion where the Deaf community needs the most in the mental health field? Especially the Deaf-centered way. 

In the highest standard of principle what it should be, a Deaf-centric or Deaf-centered mental health organization had revolutionized the stereotypical odds. It should be of, by, and for Deaf people. This “cultural awareness” in our Deaf community where we live continues to be a minority group thriving for awareness and social justice, which we are seeing in the mental health field that is sorely painful in the Deaf leadership.

 National Deaf Therapy (NDT) under the auspices of Communication Service for the Deaf (CSD). ‘Auspices’ is from the Latin, auspicium, and auspex, which mean “one who looks at birds”.

Communication Service for the Deaf: Using the ‘flying birds’ as power-hungryAccording to wiki: ‘Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion of interpreting omens from the observed flights of birds.” (1)

Is it the wrong path where National Deaf Therapy is being heavily appropriated by Communication Service for the Deaf exercising privileges and profiting? Even in 2019. But, should we not completely surprised? Don’t we see manifestations of elitism, favouritism, and privileges every single day? Let me use those examples:

Jameson Crane III and Jonathan Soukup, both CEO and co-founder in the same business together (see link below), they have strong connections to Communication Service for the Deaf, its founder of CSD, Benjamin Soukup, and its current CEO, Christopher Soukup (Jonathan’s brother).

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As for Jameson Crane III’s hearing father, Jameson Crane, Jr. was on Communication Service for the Deaf board, now is on the Gallaudet Board of Trustees (see both links below). Social Venture Fund (SVF) has awarded National Deaf Therapy because of father-in-law’s connections as a board to NDT as well. Jameson Crane III’s spouse: Amanda Sortwell Crane, one of National Deaf Therapy co-founder.

Don’t we see manifestations of elitism, favouritism, and privileges?

Power-hunger is shown by connection to Gallaudet University? A good example, ADWAS founder, Marylin Jean Smith is on Communication Service for the Deaf board (see link below), and one of the National Deaf Therapy co-founders, Megan Erasmus is working for ADWAS while running National Deaf Therapy (see link below)Is that a big conflict of interest?

I was told that it is common for people to work full time while maintaining their own practices part-time until their practice grow enough that they can support themselves with the new private practice. Still conflict of interest?

Convo Communications: the CEO, Jarrod Musano who owns the Daily Moth and Melmira, connected to Communication Service for the Deaf, yes or no? However, Jarrod and Communication Service for the Deaf board member, Danny Lacey, have strong connections between each other.

The disability framework, a negativity bias defining the Deaf community, colonizes National Deaf Therapy. Exploring core concepts what “disability” to define ‘Deaf’–especially how the polarity of disability is culturally constructed and embodied, emphasizing the “social model”–and it shows clearly that National Deaf Therapy did not aim enough for a deepened understanding of the social, economic, and political aspects of disability as perceived and embodied in literature.

Does it mean the Deaf are defined from the American society because they are not normal healthy people as long as they must live in the medical model of disability?

Although frequently used to refer to the Deaf, this label is considered highly offensive to the Deaf. It ignored cultural identity and its use among hearing is a sign of ignorance (Roach, 2002) [2]

Ryan Commerson [3], producer of “Media, Power, & Ideology: Re-defining D-E-A-F”— Supposedly, Deaf people are labeled as ‘disability’ in the name of ideology.

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Commerson: “…the misrepresentation would still reside in your subconscious. What should you do about it?” that leads to ‘Contesting Stereotypes: Taking Images Apart’.

“…When a particular meaning in broadcast for a while, then it becomes common sense,closed, and resides in your subconscious. Life goes on as normal. However, we must go back to the misrepresentation residing in their subconscious…and reveal the distortion of the images. People might be rattled or accept this new reality. However, the problem with this is, by unlocking the meaning, it’s open for interpretation. Would everyone interpret it the same way?”

He used to be a scholar until Communication Service for the Deaf took him in as Social Change Strategist and exploited his views. I bet Ryan couldn’t challenge Communication Service for the Deaf because he is stuck with them.

In my previous blog post:

“The Deaf community is powerful in the human psyche. Indeed, at this level of humanity, would the Deaf community understand the painful history of what the term “disability” define Deaf people? Have the Medical Model of Disability had caused enough destruction in the Deaf community?”

‘Do Deaf People Have a Disability?‘ published by Harlan Lane [4]:

“A disability is a limitation of function because of an impairment. Deaf people are limited in some functions because of an impairment of hearing. Therefore, Deaf people have a disability.”

Justice must include human rights and compassion. It must include an appreciation of Deaf cultural uniqueness. What strikes me the most by Lane’s writing as seen in the picture:

“On the other hand, the Deaf-World is a linguistic and cultural minority quite unlike disability groups and with a distinctly different agenda. Moreover, to be Deaf is not disability in Deaf culture, and most members of the Deaf-World see no disability in their ways of being. To give up their legal rights would be self-defeating; to demand them under disability law seems like hypocrisy.”

Does that mean the Deaf community has become a pet cause for Communication Service for the Deaf and National Deaf Therapy? This is not the spirit of the Deaf community. That is the sign of power-hunger. Or, is it power-struggle?

The true leadership that steps up to the plate with the facts as they are and makes intelligent decisions on those facts only and not only on the emotionalized, oppressive of the Deaf community and the misinformed public sentiment. Why is National Deaf Therapy under the auspices of Communication Service for the Deaf pushing for a chess game?

-JT

Copyright © 2019 Jason Tozier

This text may be freely copied in its entirely only, including this copyright message.

References:

(1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augury

(2) Roach, Amy (2002). “Which is Correct: Deaf, deaf, hard of hearing, or Hearing Impaired?” Deaf Linx. 22 Feb. 2003

(3) https://vimeo.com/12817361

(4) Lane, Harlan L. “Do Deaf People Have a Disability?” Sign Language Studies, vol. 2 no. 4, 2002, p. 356-379. Project MUSE

Links:

http://naturaltcapital.com/

https://www.prweb.com/releases/brandi_rarus_top_marketing_communications_executive_joins_communication_service_for_the_deafs_board_of_directors/prweb16295100.htm

https://www.gallaudet.edu/board-of-trustees

https://www.csd.org/about/

Harry H. Laughlin’s Hatred of Deaf People

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Hearing supremacy is a hellavu drug. A mind filled with hatred speaks a sober heart. History did not teach us enough about haters that comes out of their mouth right into the public when they feel safe because of eugenics ideology. Not only that, but Whiteness is like a drug.

After I learned the history about Harry Hamiliton Laughlin, one of the staunchest supporters of eugenical research and policy in the United States in the first half of the 20th century, where Laughlin writes a letter to Professor Dr. Eugene Fischer, President of International Congress for the Scientific Investigation of Population Problems in 1935, responsible for the sterilization of Deaf people where the Nazi party filled with white supremacy loved his idea and used his model in 1933 to verbally and physically assault Deaf people by sterilization.

If it was in 2019, would Harry Laughlin be prosecuted for a hate crime? Would that be a prosecutorial slam dunk……but white privilege gets in the way. Wasn’t he possibly suffering from a lithium imbalance? Isn’t paranoia approaching severe personality disorder characterized by a constant suspicion that Laughlin have sinister motives against Deaf people?

When I learned about the history about Harry Laughlin through Equal Justice Initiative, one of my favorite organization, commented: “On this day [December 2nd] in 1922, eugenicist Henry Laughlin published the “model sterilization law” which encouraged lawmakers to develop more effective and “constitutionally acceptable” sterilization laws.” and realized that he was public enemy number one influencing American eugenics policy. That was where Alexander Graham Bell loved his idea.

The anger, and the arrogance towards innocent Deaf people Harry Laughlin did not know, and cannot fathom to understand this hatred. The damage control has been done. Laughlin who went after Deaf subjects for eugenic sterilization of personal power and a higher degree of self-esteem because it demonstrates that one feels good enough about himself to demand something better or higher from the world.

Harry Laughlin knew who Alexander Graham Bell, the leading eugenicist in the Deaf community who would publish articles on hereditary ‘Deafness’, and they were responsible for the destruction of the Deaf community.

Imagine if Harry Laughlin and Alexander Graham Bell who sit together in order to spew hatred towards Deaf people. Wake up! Inside the media propaganda is yet another effort to dismantle the Deaf community. Or, another effort to deter intellectual freedom to all the Deaf?

Would they really understand the painful history what Harry Hamiliton Laughlin and Alexander Graham Bell had caused enough destruction in the Deaf community? Where is the mistrust of what we see on the news outlets about Harry H. Laughlin and Alexander Graham Bell?

The sterilization of the Deaf people is the worst of all. The Deaf community began to sense differently.

When I first learned about Charles Darwin back in 1988 in eighth grade after taking Biology class, my hearing teacher would speak highly of Darwin’s work, also learned about Francis Galton whom I had no idea he was related to Charles Darwin as half-cousins in college days and told a history lesson where eugenics were taught in schools across the country, only many years later after I read Paddy Ladd’s Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood:

“Against this background, Darwin’s initially explosive ideas on evolution served to reinforce the medical discourse. Deaf people and their languages were confirmed as akin to those of other savages, and an atavistic throwback who, like them, ‘may fancifully be called living fossils [and] will aid us in forming a picture of the ancient forms of life’ ” (1859: 448)

That hit me hard. I had no idea until 2010 when I was 35. The book written by Paddy Ladd had changed my life completely. I feel the wind differently. I relate to the Deaf community and experience a bond with the Deaf community which clearly unknown to you.

Sociology had stolen my heart and became a student of Sociology, and learned that Harriet Martineau, the Mother of Sociology, Martineau was Deaf. I was surprised. I bet you do not know that either. Even my professor whom studied Martineau in graduate school had no idea that Martineau was Deaf.

Not even hearing professors ever mention anything about it. A pattern of ignorance? A certain weaving together of ignorance? Peace, freedom, and global health of the Deaf shall not be ignored.

Martineau was dating Charles Darwin’s older brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin, and Darwin saw and grabbed the greatest ignorance, the slandering of Deaf people so great that not even an idea exists of what Darwin’s hatred should look like. Would it end all kinds of intellectual oppression? Darwin’s ideology rakes for the highest form of democracy in the broadest sense of hatred.

Despite the vast differences, would The Society for Biodemography and Social Biology, formerly American Eugenics Society apologize for Laughlin’s hatred of the Deaf people? Would they do so with a commitment to develop healthy task to overcome indifference, show of human compassion, that plagues the Deaf community?

Deaf people who lived in Hitler’s Europe, whom were targeted for the display of symbols of hate, thanks to Laughlin’s work. Dealing with the cultural differences, specifically, with the way of life of the ‘minorities’ who live in the society. After reading Crying Hands: Eugenics and Deaf People in Nazi Germany by Horst Biesold, by cultural norms, in processing of a hate crime, and that becomes an issue that all hate crime sessions by Laughlin’s work, must tackle.

Isn’t hate crime by no means unique in the broadest respect of the Deaf people?

If The Society for Biodemography and Social Biology, formerly as American Eugenics Society, refuses to apologize for Laughlin’s action, why should Deaf people be punished more severely because of social and psychological pathology?

Laughlin as an American citizen who breeds in White Supremacy as he received an honorary degree from the Nazi-controlled, University of Heidelberg for the work of race-cleansing. Hate crime violates constitutional rights of the Deaf people, especially Deaf babies.

We must always remind ourselves as well as all others how our Declaration of Independence makes our country different from any other nation around the world. The Declaration proclaims that we have inalienable rights to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

American Eugenics Society, under the establishment of Harry H. Laughlin in 1926 who was served as the Superintendent of the Eugenics Record Office, probably the best known, if not the most oppressive, White supremacist in America–all but faded into culture of hate.

Will Deaf people ever get a formal apology from The Society for Biodemography and Social Biology?

-JT

Copyright © 2019 Jason Tozier

This text may be freely copied in its entirely only, including this copyright message.

Nyle DiMarco: Do Deaf People Have a Disability?

 

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Today, December 3, 2019: International Day of Disabled Persons. 

When my state of being Deaf had been taught all my life, being told, and being controlled by the medical model of disability, I refuse to live in the negativity bias. Being Deaf is no longer viewed as a disability. What is negativity bias?

It was known as negativity effect (1), also known as the negativity effect, is the notion that, even when of equal intensity, things of a more negative nature (e.g. unpleasant thoughts, emotions, or social interactions; harmful/traumatic events) have a greater effect on one’s psychological state and processes than neutral or positive things. (2,3,4)

Do you tend to dwell on bad memories and experiences? It may be due to the negativity bias, because being colonized and taught that Deaf people are disabled.

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The Deaf community is powerful in the human psyche. Indeed, at this level of humanity, would the Deaf community understand the painful history of what the term “disability” define Deaf people? Have the Medical Model of Disability had caused enough destruction in the Deaf community?

‘Do Deaf People Have a Disability?‘ published by Harlan Lane:

“A disability is a limitation of function because of an impairment. Deaf people are limited in some functions because of an impairment of hearing. Therefore, Deaf people have a disability.” (5)

We already know that Deaf people who embody rather healthy traits of higher learning, the pursuit of happiness, and respect, but sadly, though, they are often being colonized by the disability model. Consider the plight of the oppressed of today. Lane writes in, Constructions of Deafness:

“As a social problem, deafness can be variously construed. Each of the primary constructions of deafness today – disability and linguistic minority – has its archetypes but most deaf children match neither of them.” (6)

Why must Deaf people come under a disability label, despite the vast differences, would the Deaf community stop being labeled by the disability model, would they do so with a commitment to developing a healthy task to overcome indifference, a show of human compassion, that plagues the Deaf community?

Nyle DiMarco writes:

“My Deaf identity is not an obstacle but an advantage — an asset.”

But….the confusion……the disability model has been taking advantage of the Deaf community as an asset and live in negativity effect.

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And, I learned that Nyle DiMarco and his twin brother are on a panel about disability inclusion sponsored by the World Bank at this hour. Will Nyle tell the world that being Deaf is not part of disability? I doubt so.

Will Nyle tell the world about The Ugly Laws: Disability in Public? I doubt so. Because Nyle thinks disability is a positivity effect. The opposite of the negativity effect. Does that mean Nyle DiMarco is also being colonized, too?

According to Paddy Ladd, Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood:

“The culturolinguistic model thus leads to the situating of Deaf community experiences within the rubric of colonialism. Although most people conceive colonialism as formed around economic power visited upon cultures less able to defend themselves, there is undeniably a case to be made for the concept of linguistic colonialism, and it is this which provides a bridge across which discourses between signing and other colonised communities can begin.” (7)

We must always remind ourselves as well as all others how our Declaration of Independence makes our country different from any other nation around the world. The Declaration proclaims that we have inalienable rights to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

Finally, Harlan Lane writes in the same book above:

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-JT

Copyright © 2019 Jason Tozier

This text may be freely copied in its entirely only, including this copyright message.

REFERENCES:

(1) Kanouse, D. E., & Hanson, L. (1972). Negativity in evaluations. In E. E. Jones, D. E. Kanouse, S. Valins, H. H. Kelley, R. E. Nisbett, & B. Weiner (Eds.), Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.

(2)  Baumeister, Roy F.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Vohs, Kathleen D. (2001). “Bad is stronger than good” (PDF). Review of General Psychology. 5 (4): 323–370.

(3) Lewicka, Maria; Czapinski, Janusz; Peeters, Guido (1992). “Positive-negative asymmetry or “When the heart needs a reason””. European Journal of Social Psychology. 22 (5): 425–434

(4) Rozin, Paul; Royzman, Edward B. (2001). “Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion”. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 5 (4): 296–320.

(5) Lane, Harlan L. “Do Deaf People Have a Disability?” Sign Language Studies, vol. 2 no. 4, 2002, p. 356-379. Project MUSE

(6) Lane, Harlan L. (1995) Constructions of Deafness, Disability & Society, 10:2, 171-190

(7) Ladd, Paddy (2003) Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood, 17.